Subject Title                           :           Theory of Machines

Subject Code                         :           M-

Hours Per Week                    :           04

Hours Per Semester              :           64




Major Topics

Hours Allotted

Weightage of Marks







Basic kinematics of machines









Transmission of power













Mechanical vibrations








Industry Institution Interaction




Tests and Revisions









General Objectives


            On completion of the course, the student should be able to


  1. Know the definitions of Theory of Machines
  2. Understand the Kinematics of Machines, their Mechanisms & Inversions
  3. Understand the friction involved in bearings, clutches & brakes
  4. Know different methods of transmission of power
  5. Understand different types of cams and their motions and also to draw cam profiles for various motions
  6. Know different types of vibration and to understand critical speed of shaft
  7. Understand balancing of masses in the same plane
  8. Know different types of governors


Subject Content Details


1.0  Introduction 

1.1 Definition of  TOM

1.2 Sub – divisions of  TOM

2.0 Basic kinematics of Machines

2.1 Kinematic link or element

2.2 Types of links

2.3  Kinematic pair –types

2.4  Types of constrained Motions    

2.5  Kinematic chain  

2.6  Machine, Structure and Mechanism

2.7  Difference between Machine and Structure

2.8  Difference between Machine and Mechanism

2.9  Inversions

2.10 Types of Kinematic Chains

2.11 Four Bar Chain

                        2.111 Beam Engine

                        2.112 Coupling Rod of Locomotive

                        2.113 Watt’s Indicator Mechanism

2.12 Single Slider Crank Chain

            2.121 Pendulum Pump

                        2.122 Oscillating cylinder engine

2.123 Rotary I.C Engine

2.124 Crank and Slotted Lever Quick Return Motion Mechanism

2.125 Whitworth Quick Return Motion Mechanism.

2.13   Double Slider Crank Chain

                        2.131 Elliptical trammel

            2.132 Scotch yoke mechanism

                        2.133 Oldham’s coupling

3.0  Friction

3.1   Introduction

3.2   Friction in Journal Bearing

3.3   Power Transmission in the above bearing

3.4   Friction in Thrust Bearing

                        3.41 Pivot Bearing – Flat and Conical bearing

                        3.42 Collar Bearing – Single and Multiple

3.5   Problems on bearings – assuming uniform pressure theory

3.6   Friction in Clutches

                        3.61 Single Disc Clutch

                        3.62 Multiple Disc Clutch

3.7   Problems on clutches – assuming uniform wear theory

3.8   Introduction to Brakes

3.9   Internal Expanding Brake (Mechanical & Hydraulic)

310  Disc brake                      

3.11 Dynamometer

3.12 Difference between Brake and Dynamometer

3.13 Difference between Brake and clutch


4.0 Transmission of Power

4.1   Types of Belt Drives

4.2   Length of belt –open and cross belt drives

4.3   Velocity Ratio, Ratio of driving Tensions, Centrifugal Tension and Initial Tension

4.4   Power Transmitted by belts( flat and V) and  ropes

4.5   Maximum power transmitted by belt (without proof)

4.6   Problems on belt drives

4.7   Introduction to Gears

4.8   Classification of Gears

4.9   Spur Gear Terminology

4.10 Problems on gears

4.11 Introduction to Gear Trains

4.12 Types of Gear trains –Simple, Compound, Reverted and Epicyclic gear trains

4.13 Problems on Gear Trains


5.0 Cams

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Classification of cams

5.3 Classification of followers

5.4 Terminology of Radial disc cam

5.5 Displacement diagram for the following Motion of follower 

                        5.51 Uniform velocity

                        5.52 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

                        5.53 Uniform Acceleration and Retardation Motion (UARM)

5.6 Velocity and acceleration during Out stroke and Return stroke of follower during SHM and UARM

5.7 Cam profile construction for

5.81 Knife edge follower

                        5.82 Roller follower

6.0 Mechanical Vibrations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Terms used in Vibrations

6.3 Types of Vibrations

6.31 Free Vibrations

                        6.32 Forced Vibrations

                        6.33 Damped Vibrations

6.4 Types of  Free Vibrations- Longitudinal ,Transverse and Torsional

6.5 Critical or Whirling speed of a shaft

7.0 Balancing

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Static and Dynamic balancing

7.3 Balancing of single rotating mass in the same plane of projection

7.4 Balancing of several masses rotating in the same plane of projection

7.5 Problems on above (Analytical and Graphical methods)

8.0 Governors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Types of Governors

8.3 Centrifugal Governor

8.4 Terms used in governors

8.5 Watt Governor

8.6 Porter Governor


Specific Instruction Objectives


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Define the term Theory of Machines

1.2 Define and explain briefly kinematics, dynamics, kinetics and statics


2.0 Basic kinematics of Machines

            2.1  Define kinematic link and list its characteristics

            2.2  Explain rigid, flexible and fluid link with examples

2.3  Define kinematic pair and explain in detail its classifications based on  type of relative motion, type of contact and type of closure

            2.4  Explain 3 types of Constrained Motion with examples

            2.5  Define and explain kinematic chain. Give the relation between link, joint and kinematic pairs

             2.6  Define and Explain with examples  machine, structure and mechanism

             2.7  List the difference between Machine and Structure

             2.8  List the difference between Machine and Mechanism

             2.9  Explain Inversion with an example

             2.10List types of Kinematic chains

             2.11Explain with sketches, four bar chain and its inversions

             2.12Explain with sketches,  single slider Crank Chain and its inversions

             2.13Explain with sketches,  double slider Crank Chain and its inversions



3.0 Friction

            3.1 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Friction

            3.2 With sketch explain friction in Journal Bearing

3.3 Solve a simple problem on Torque and Power transmission in Journal Bearing

            3.4 Explain friction in thrust bearing

                        3.41 Explain with sketch types of Pivot Bearings

                        3.42 Explain with sketch types of collar Bearings

3.5 Simple problems on the above bearings involving calculation of Intensity of pressure, Friction torque and power lost in friction  (Number of collars in Multiple collar bearings)

            3.6 Define clutches and explain Friction in Clutches

                        3.61 Explain with sketch single disc clutch

                        3.62 Explain with sketch multiple disc clutch

3.7 Solve simple problems on clutches involving power transmission, dimensions of the   friction plates, number of active surfaces, intensity of pressure between discs, number of plates required and axial force to engage the clutch

            3.8 Briefly explain brakes, its advantages and disadvantages

3.9 Explain with sketch Internal expanding brake(Both Mechanical & Hydraulic- -actuated)

3.10 Explain with sketch Disc brake.

            3.11 Explain Dynamometer

            3.12 List the differences between Brake and Dynamometer

            3.13 List the differences between Brake and Clutch


4.0 Transmission of Power

            4.1   List the types of belt drives

4.2   Explain the equation to determine the length of belt in open and cross belt drives (Derivation of equation not required)

4.3   Explain the terms Velocity ratio, ratio of driving tensions, centrifugal tension and initial tension with related expressions

4.4   List the expressions to determine power transmitted by flat belt, v belt and rope drives

            4.5   Explain the condition for Maximum power transmission

4.6   Solve simple problems involving length of belt, width of belt, power transmitted by belts and ropes ,number of v-belts/ropes

4.7   Briefly explain toothed wheel concept with advantages and disadvantages of Gear drives

            4.8   List classification of Gears

            4.9   Define and explain terms used in gears

4.10 Solve simple problems on gears involving exact centre distance, number of teeth on meshing gears, velocity ratio and power transmitted

            4.11 Briefly give introduction to gear trains

            4.12 With sketches explain different types of gear trains

4.13 Solve simple problems on simple and compound gear trains involving number of teeth on meshing gears, speed of Driver or Follower


5.0 Cams

            5.1 Briefly give introduction about cams

            5.2 List and explain with sketches, classification of cams

            5.3 List and explain with sketches, classification of followers

            5.4 Define and explain terms used in radial disc cams

5.5 Draw and explain displacement diagram for the follower with Uniform velocity, simple harmonic motion and uniform acceleration and retardation motions

5.6 Calculate velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke of   follower during SHM and UARM

5.6 Draw the profile of the cam considering radial and offset for knife edge follower and roller follower during UV, SHM and UARM


6.0 Mechanical Vibrations

            6.1 Briefly explain the vibration phenomenon

6.2 Define the terms used in vibrations

6.3 Explain different types of vibrations

6.4 With sketches explain different types of free vibrations

6.5 Explain in detail critical or whirling speed of a shaft discuss the equation to determine critical or whirling speed (derivation not required)


7.0 Balancing

            7.1 Discuss the conditions for unbalance and the necessity of balancing

            7.2 Define and explain the static and dynamic balancing

7.3 Explain in detail balancing of single rotating mass in the same plane of projection

7.4 Explain in detail balancing of several masses rotating in the same plane of projection

7.5 Solve simple problem on above conditions both by analytical and graphical methods

8.0 Governors

            8.1 Explain the function of a governor

            8.2 List the types of governors

            8.3 Explain with sketch working principle of centrifugal governor

            8.4 Explain various terms used in governors

            8.5 With sketch explain working of watt governor

            8.6 With sketch explain working of porter governor

Reference Books :

1. Kinematics of Machines---J B K Das, Sapna Publication

2. Theory of machines--------   R.S. Khurmi & J.K.Gupta , S.Chand publication

3 . Theory of machines-------   P.L.Ballaney , Khanna publication

4. Theory of machines-------    Thomas Bevan ,CBS publication

5. Theory of machines---------Malhothra & Gupta 

6. Theory of machines---------S.S .Rattan ,Tata McGraw-Hill publication

7. Theory of machines---------R.K.Bansal ,Laxmi publication

8. Dynamics of Machines----J B K Das, Sapna Publication

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