### HYDRAULICS 4TH SEMESTER DIPLOMA CIVIL ENGINEERING CIVIL D'SHIP

HYDRAULICS 4TH SEMESTER DIPLOMA CIVIL ENGINEERING CIVIL D'SHIP

Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING/ CIVIL D’SHIP

FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT:  HYDRAULICS

Contact Hrs/Week: 4 Hrs.                                                 Contact Hrs/Sem:64 Hrs.

TOPICS

 CHAPTER NO CONTENTS NO OF HOURS MARKS WEIGHTAGE IN EXAM PART-A 1 Fundamentals of Hydraulics 05 12 2 Total Pressure and centre of pressure 06 15 3 Flow of fluids 08 20 PART-B 4 Flow through orifices and mouthpieces 08 20 5 Flow over notches 05 14 6 Flow over weirs 05 14 PART-C 7 Flow through channels 07 20 8 Flow through Pipes 06 15 9 Pumps and turbines 05 15 10 Seminars, field/technical visit, inventions/innovations, demonstrations, workshops etc 05 ----- 11 Tests and revision 04 ---- 64 145

FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT:  HYDRAULICS

DETAILS OF CONTENTS

1.     FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDRAULICS

Fluid, classification and properties of fluids

Pressure and its measurements: Definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, absolute pressure, vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and pressure head

Measurement of pressure: Manometer, U-tube , differential manometer, simple problems

2.     TOTAL PRESSURE AND CENTRE OF PRESSURE

Total pressure and centre of pressure on vertical planes like, triangular , rectangular and circular plane surfaces (simple problems)

Practical applications of centre of pressure, sluice gates (only theory)

3.     FLOW OF FLUIDS

Types of flow, stream line , turbulent, steady and unsteady, uniform and non uniform

Discharge and continuity equation- simple problems

Energies in fluid motion- potential, kinetic and pressure head

Bernoulli’s theorem( without proof) –simple problems

Horizontal venturimeter, theory and simple problems

4.     FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES

Definition and types of orifices, vena contracta, hydraulic co-efficients and their relationship (only theory)

Flow through rectangular and circular orifice (simple problems without derivation)

Flow through submerged and partially submerged orifices

Mouth pieces- different types and their uses, convergent, divergent and Borda’s mouth piece.

5.     FLOW OVER NOTCHES

Definition of notch, and its types, discharge calculation for rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notch (simple problems without derivation)

6.     FLOW OVER WEIRS

Definition of weir, discharge over rectangular and cippolitte weir (simple problems without derivation)

Types of weirs and their uses (only theory)

7.     FLOW THROUGH CHANNELS

Definition and classification of channels

Discharge through channels using Chezy’s and Manning’s formula( no derivation – simple problems only)

Most economical sections for rectangular and trapezoidal channels

8.     FLOW THROUGH PIPES

Loss of  fluid friction

Types of losses, major  and minor losses

Darcy’s formula for head loss due to friction( simple problems, on major and minor losses)

Hydraulic gradient and total energy line

Flow through single  pipe

Flow from one reservoir to another reservoir through single pipe

Water hammer, surge tanks (only theory)

9.     PUMPS AND TURBINES

Working principle of reciprocating, centrifugal and deep well pumps

Maintenance of  pumps

Turbine, types and its working principle of Pelton and Francis turbine

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:

Upon completion of the study of the subject the student should be able to

1.     Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement

2.     Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure

3.     Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid  and  energies of fluid

4.     Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces

5.     Determine the discharge for different types of notches.

6.     Determine the discharge for different types of weirs

7.     Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most economical sections

8.     Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.

9.     Understand the working principles of  pumps and turbines

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

1.0 Comprehend the fluid pressure and its measurement.

1.1   Know the definition of  fluid,  its classification and important properties and their  SI    units  (simple problems)

1.2  Understand the definition of Hydrostatic pressure, atmospheric pressure,

gauge pressure, absolute pressure,  vaccum pressure, intensity of pressure and

1.3 Measurement of pressure using simple manometer and differential manometer, simple

problems on them

2.0 Know the importance of total pressure and centre of pressure

2.1 Understand the concept of total pressure and centre of pressure on  vertical planes

like, triangular , rectangular and circular plane surfaces

2.2 Simple problems on the above

2.3 Know the practical applications of center of pressure (sluice gates)

3.0 Comprehend the general principles of the flow of a fluid  and  energies of fluid

3.1  Definition of  various types of fluid flow. stream line , turbulent, steady and unsteady,

uniform and non uniform

3.2  Establish the equation of continuity of flow.(simple problems)

3.3  Know the type of energies of fluid in motion.( potential, kinetic and pressure head)

3.4  State Bernoulli's theorem for total energy and its equation(simple problems)

3.6  Application of Bernoulli's equation for horizontal venturimeter(Theory equation and

simple problems).

4.0 Understand the principles of flow through orifices and mouth pieces.

4.1  Know the definition of orifice and Classify the different types of orifices

4.2  Define  the terms Vena contracta , hydraulic coefficients and their relationships

4.3  Understand the flow through rectangular and circular orifice and simple problems

4.4  Understand the concept flow through submerged and partially submerged orifice.

4.5  List  the various types of mouthpieces., differentiate between internal and external

mouth piece

5.0  Determine the discharge for different types of notches.

5.1 Definition and types of notches

5.2 Know the Formula for discharge over rectangular notch, trapezoidal notch

and triangular notches.(simple problems)

6.0 Determine the discharge for different types of weirs

6.1 Definition and type of weirs

6.2 State the formula for discharge over a rectangular weir and cippolette weir(simple

problems)

6.3 Francis formula for  the discharge over a rectangular weir(simple problems)

7.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through channels of most economical sections

.

7.1 Define the terms: wetted perimeter and hydraulic mean depth.

7.2 Knowledge of Chezy's formula for discharge through open channel.

7.3 Calculate the discharge through a rectangular and trapezoidal channel

using Chezy's formula.

7.4 State  Manning's formulae for discharge through open  channel.

7.5 Calculate the discharge through rectangular and trapezoidal channels using

above formulae.

7.6 Explain the most economical cross section of a channel.

7.7 State the conditions for most economical section of a rectangular and

trapezoidal channel.

7.8 Calculate the discharge for most economical section of  rectangular and

trapezoidal channels from the given parameter.

7.9  Calculate the max. velocity and max. discharge in a channel of circular section

7.10  Explain the terms - specific energy, critical depth, critical velocity for

non-uniform flow.

7.11  Explain the hydraulic jump and its applications.

8.0 Understand the terms and principles of flow through pipes.

8.1  State the law's of fluid friction for uniform flow.

8.2  To know the types of losses of flow in a pipe –major and minor losses

8.3  Know and apply  Darcy’s formula for head loss due to friction  in a pipe flow

from given parameters.

8.4  Define and Sketch the hydraulic gradient and total energy lines.

8.5  Calculate the discharge from one reservoir to another reservoir through

a single pipeline.

8.6  Explain the effect of water hammer.

8.7 Outline the use of surge tank

.

9.0 Understand the working principles of  pumps and turbines

.

9.1  Explain the working principles of a reciprocating pump, centrifugal pump

and deep well pump-theory and sketch

9.2  Explain the maintenance of pumps

9.3  Define turbine , classification of turbines, differentiate between impulse and

reaction  turbine and its working principle

Text Book :1. Hydraulics By H S Vishwanath, Sapna Publications.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. P.N.Modi and Dr S.M.Seth

(Standard Book House, Delhi - 6)

2. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines  R S Khurmi

( S Chand and Company, Ramnagar New Delhi - 110 055  )

3. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Dr. Jagadish Lal

4. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics - Abdulla Sheriff

5. Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery V. Thanikachelam T.T.T.I Madras - 600 113

6. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines Bansal A R ( Laxmi publication,

New Delhi- 110 002)

7. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines - S.Ramamrutham

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