## THERMAL ENGINEERING-I

Subject Title                           :           Thermal Engineering-I

Subject Code                         :           M-

Hours Per Week                    :           04

Hours Per Semester              :           64

#### TOPIC ANALYSIS

SL.No

Major Topics

Hours Allotted

Weightage of Marks

SECTION-I

1

Fundamental of  thermodynamics

07

20

2

Laws of perfect gases

04

10

3

Thermodynamic processes in gases

12

30

SECTION-II

4

Fuels and combustion

05

15

5

# Air Standard Cycles

10

25

SECTTION-III

6

Properties of Steam

10

25

7

Vapour power cycles

07

20

8

Industry innovations

05

-

9

Tests

04

-

Total

64

145

On the completion of the course the students should be able to:

<![if !supportLists]>1.      <![endif]>Apply fundamental concepts of thermodynamics to thermodynamic systems and              understand various laws of thermodynamics.

<![if !supportLists]>2.      <![endif]>Understand the laws of perfect gases

<![if !supportLists]>3.      <![endif]>Understand the various thermodynamic processes

<![if !supportLists]>4.      <![endif]>Know the different fuels and importance of calorific value of fuel

<![if !supportLists]>5.      <![endif]>Know the different air standard cycles and their practical significance

<![if !supportLists]>6.     <![endif]>Understand the various properties of steam and calculate properties of two phase system by using steam tables/ mollier charts.

<![if !supportLists]>7.      <![endif]>Understand the basic Vapour power cycles

COURSE CONTENTS

<![if !supportLists]>1.0              <![endif]>Fundamentals and laws of Thermodynamics.

<![if !supportLists]>1.1              <![endif]>Definitions for system - boundary, surrounding, working fluid and state of a system.

<![if !supportLists]>1.2              <![endif]>Types of thermodynamic systems – closed, open and isolated systems with examples.

<![if !supportLists]>1.3              <![endif]>Properties of system- Intensive and Extensive properties with examples.

<![if !supportLists]>1.4              <![endif]>Definitions for properties like pressure (p), Volume (v), Temperature (T), Enthalpy (H), Internal energy (U) Specific heat at constant pressure(cp), specific heat at constant volume(CV) for a gas. and their units.

<![if !supportLists]>1.5              <![endif]>Definitions for quasi-static work, flow- work, specific heat.

1.6       Zeroth, first, second laws of thermodynamics, simple problems on conversion of Heat into Work and vice versa.

1.7     Steady flow energy equation (without proof),

<![if !supportLists]>2.0              <![endif]>Laws of perfect gases.

<![if !supportLists]>2.1              <![endif]>Brief explanation of perfect Gas Laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s Law – -Gay-Lussac law-Avogadro’s -Joule’s law .

<![if !supportLists]>2.2              <![endif]>Derive characteristic gas equation - universal gas equation, universal gas constant and their relationship with molecular weight of gas.

<![if !supportLists]>2.3              <![endif]>Derivation for an expression showing the relationship between the two specific heats and characteristic gas constant.

<![if !supportLists]>2.4              <![endif]>Simple problems on gas equation.

3.0       Thermodynamic processes on gases.

3.1       Types of thermodynamic processes, Constant pressure, Constant volume, Isothermal, Free expansion, Isentropic, Polytrophic and throttling processes & equations representing the processes.

3.2       Concept of Entropy.

3.3       Derivation for work done, change in internal energy and Entropy for the above processes.

3.4       Calculation of heat supplied or rejected during the above processes.

3.5       Simple problems on the above processes.

4.0       Fuels and Combustion.

4.1       Definition of fuel.  Types – solid, liquid and gaseous fuels examples and uses of different types of fuels.

4.2       Calorific values (Higher and lower) of fuels, Dulong’s formula for calorific value.   &  calculation of calorific value of a fuel of given chemical composition.

4.3       Bomb calorimeter unit-Description-procedure for determination of C.V. of solid or liquid fuel using Bomb calorimeters.

4.4       Junker’s Gas calorimeters unit – Description – determination of gas using Junker’s calorimeter.

<![if !supportLists]>5.0              <![endif]>Air standard cycles.

5.1       Meaning of air standard cycle-its use-Reversible and irreversible process – reversible and irreversible cycles conditions for reversibility of a cycle.

5.2       Brief description of Carnot cycle with P.V. and T-S diagrams, Air standard Efficiency - Problems on Carnot cycle.

5.3       Brief explanation of Otto cycle with P.V. and T-S diagrams, Air standard Efficiency - Simple problems on Otto cycle.

5.4       Brief description of Diesel cycle with P.V. and T-S diagrams, Air standard Efficiency - Simple problems on Diesel cycle.

5.5       Brief description of Dual cycle with P.V. and T-S diagrams, Air standard Efficiency - Simple problems on dual cycle.

5.5       Reasons for the highest efficiency of Carnot cycle over other cycles working between same temperature limits.

6.0       Properties of steam.

6.1       Formation of steam under constant pressure, dryness, fraction and degree of superheat, specific volume.

6.2       Determination of enthalpy, internal energy, internal latent heat, entropy of wet, dry and superheated steam at a given pressure using steam tables and Mollier chart.

6.3       Simple direct problems on the above using tables and charts.

6.4       Vapour processes – simple problems using tables and charts.

7.0     Vapour Power cycle

7.1       Introduction – carnot cycle,

7.2       Rankine cycle

7.3       Modified rankine cycle

7.4       Simple problems on above

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1.0     Understand the Fundamentals and laws of Thermodynamics.

1.1       Define the various terms associated with the Thermodynamic System.

1.2       Define the ‘State and System’.

1.3       Name the types of thermodynamic Systems.

1.4       Explain the closed system with Examples.

1.5       Explain the open system with examples

1.6       Explain the isolated system with Examples.

1.7       List the thermodynamic Properties of System.

1.8       Define the various thermodynamic properties.

1.9       Write examples for each type of property and its units of measurement.

1.10     State the number of properties required to define the state of a system.

2.10     Define “Specific heat at constant pressure” (Cp)

2.11     Define “Specific heat at constant volume (Cv)

1.11     Define the modes of energy transfers to and from a system.

1.12     Represent the state of a system on a Graph.

1.13      State the Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

1.14      State the first law of thermodynamics.

1.17      Write steady flow energy equation.

1.18      Write non-flow energy equation.

1.15    State the second laws of thermodynamics.

1.16     Solve problems dealing with conversion of heat into work and vice–versa

2.0     Understand the laws of perfect gases.

2.1       Define the term ‘Perfect Gas’.

2.2       State “Boyle’s Law”

2.3       State “Charle’s Law”

2.3       State Gay-Lussac law

2.4       State “Avogadro’s Law”

2.5       State “Joule’s Law”

2.6       Derive Characteristic gas equation

2.7       Write the Universal Gas Equation

2.8       State relationship between characteristic gas constant (R), Universal gas constant (G) and molecular weight (M)

2.9       Derive the relationship connecting the two specific heats and Characteristic gas constant (R)

2.10     Solve simple problems using gas laws

3.0    Understand Thermodynamic Processes on gases.

3.1       List out the different thermodynamic processes on gases.

3.2       Derive expression for work done in Constant pressure process

3.3       Derive expression for work done in Constant volume process.

3.4       derive expression for work done in isothermal process.

3.5       Derive expression for work done in a polytrophic process.

3.6       Derive expression for work done in an isentropic process.

3.7       Explain free expansion process

3.8       Explain throttling process.

3.9       Compute the change in internal energy of gas during above process.

3.10     Write the relationship between heat supplied, internal energy and work done   during above process

3.11     Derive the expression for change of Entropy for the above processes

3.12     Sketch pressure- volume and temperature - Entropy diagram for the above processes.

3.13     Solve simple problems on the above processes.

4.0     Know the fuels and combustion.

4.1       Define the term fuel.

4.2       Name different types of fuels with examples.

4.3       Compare solid, liquid and gaseous fuels

4.4       Outline the applications of different fuels.

4.5       Define “Higher Calorific Value” of a fuel.

4.6       Define “Lower Calorific Value” of a fuel.

4.7       Re-write Dulong’s formula for calorific value from chemical composition of a fuel.

4.8       Estimate the calorific value using the above formula.

4.9       Explain with line diagram the components of a Bomb-Calorimeter.

4.10     Narrate the sequence of procedure for the determination of calorific value using Bomb calorimeter.

4.11     Explain the working principle of Junker’s Gas Calorimeter with a line diagram.

4.12     Narrate the sequence of procedure in the determination of C.V. of a gaseous fuel with Junker’s Calorimeter.

5.0     Appreciate the study of air standard cycles

5.1       Define the term ‘Air Standard cycle’

5.2       Define the term ‘Reversible Cycle’.

5.3       State the assumptions made in Air standard cycle

5.4       Explain with a line diagram the Working of Carnot cycle.

5.5       Derive the formula for the air standard efficiency of a Carnot cycle.

5.6       Solve simple problems on Carnot Cycle.

5.7       Explain the working of Otto Cycle with help of a line diagram.

5.8       Derive the formula for air standard Efficiency of Otto Cycle.

5.9       Solve simple problems on Otto Cycle.

5.10     Explain the working of a Diesel cycle with line diagrams.

5.11     Derive the formula for Air Standard Efficiency of Diesel Cycle.

5.12     Solve the simple problems on Diesel Cycles.

5.13     Derive the formula for Air Standard Efficiency of Dual cycle

5.14     Solve the simple problems on dual Cycles.

5.15     State the reasons for Carnot cycle being highly efficient than any other cycle working between the same temperature limits.

6.0              Understand the Properties of Steam

6.1       Define the various properties of steam

6.2       Compute the enthalpy, internal energy and entropy at given pressure.

6.3       Use of the steam tables

6.4       Interpret the data in steam tables to calculate enthalpy and entropy.

6.5       Compute the above values using Mollier chart.

6.6       Solve simple problems on the above.

6.7       Identify the various thermodynamic processes (Expansion & Compression of vapors)

6.8       Compute the work done, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy in each of the above processes.

6.9       Represent the above process on T-S and H-S diagrams

7.0     Understand the Vapour power cycles.

7.1        Explain with P-V and T-S diagram of Carnot cycle

7.2        Know the limitations of carnotcycle

7.3        Know flow diagram of simple rankine cycle

<![if !supportLists]>7.4                <![endif]>Derive an expression for efficiency of carnot cycle

<![if !supportLists]>7.5                <![endif]>Derive an expression for efficiency of rankine cycle

<![if !supportLists]>7.6                <![endif]>Understand the concept of Modified rankine cycle

<![if !supportLists]>7.7                <![endif]>Simple problems on above.

REFERENCES

<![if !supportLists]>1.              <![endif]>Fundamental of thermodynamics by Richard E Snnatag,Claus Borgnakke,Gordon J Vanwylen, Wiley Student edition,   6th Ed.,

<![if !supportLists]>2.              <![endif]>“ Basic and applied thermodynamics”  by P.K.Nag ,Tata McGraw hill New delhi  2009

<![if !supportLists]>3.              <![endif]>“Heat engines(Vol-I & Vol-II)”by Patel and Karmachandani

<![if !supportLists]>4.              <![endif]>“I.C.Engine Fundamentals” by Hey wood

<![if !supportLists]>5.              <![endif]>“Thermal Engineering “by R.S.Khurmi

<![if !supportLists]>6.              <![endif]>“Thermal Engineering” by P.L.Balaney

<![if !supportLists]>7.              <![endif]>“Thermodynamics applied to heat engines” by Lewitt.

<![if !supportLists]>8.              <![endif]>“  Heat engines” by Pandya and shah

<![if !supportLists]>9.              <![endif]>“ Thermodynamics “  Robert Ballmer , Jaico Publishing House.