__MODEL QUESTION BANK__

**4- **__Semester
Diploma Examination HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS__

CO-1:UNDERSTAND FLUID DYNAMICS

__Remembrance__

**1.
**Define the following properties:

a)Density b) Weight density c) Specific volume d)Specific gravity e) Viscosity

**2. **Define the following properties

a) Dynamic
viscosity b)kinematic viscosity. c)Surface tension.

**3. **Define
Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids 4.Defineand explain Newton’s law of
viscosity. 5.Describe manometer. How are they classified.
6.List the different properties of the fluid.

7.Define a)Atmospheric pressure,
b)Gauge pressure c)Absolute pressure.

__Understanding__

1.
Explain the terms with units.

a) Dynamic viscosity b)kinematic viscosity.

2.
Explain surface tension.

3.
Explain the phenomenon of capillary tube.

4.
Distinguish between ideal fluids and real fluid.

5. Distinguish
between manometers and mechanical gauges and list different types Of mechanical
pressure gauges.

6.Explain manometer and
classify.

__Application__

1 .Explain with a neat sketch
explain Bourdon’s tube pressure gauge.

2.
Explain with a neat sketch Simple monometer.

3.
Explain with a neat sketch Differential manometer.

4.
Illustrate the relationship between different pressure with diagram.

5.
Write different advantages and disadvantages of manometer.

__Remembrance__

**1. **Define equation of continuity.

**2. **Define the following

i)
Laminar flow ii) Turbulent flow,
iii)Steady flow iv) Uniform
flow

**3. **Define the following

i) Compressible fluid ii) Incompressible flow

**4. **State Bernoulli’s theorem
for steady flow of an incompressible fluid.

**5. **State the Bernoulli’s
theorem. Mention the assumptions made.

**6. **Define continuity equation
and Bernoulli’s equation.

**7. **List the different
applications of Bernoulli’s theorem .

**8. **Define hydraulics co-efficient.

__Understanding__

**9.
**Explain equation of continuity.

**10. **Distinguish between :

i) Steady flow and unsteady
flow ii)
Uniform and nonuniform flow

iii)
Compressible and incompressible flow iv)
Rotational and irrotational flow

v) Laminar and Turbulent flow

**11. **Explain pitot tube.

**12. **Explain the continuity
equation and Bernoulli’s equation.

__Application__

**13. **Explain with neat sketch the
pitot tube.

**14. **Explain the working orifice
meter with neat sketch.

**15. **Explain the principal of
venturi meter with a neat sketch.

**16. **Water is
flowing through a pipe of 50 mm diameter under a pressure of 29.43X10^{4}N/m^{2}
and with mean velocity of 2.0m/s. Find the total head or total energy per unit
weight of the water at a cross-section, which is 5m above the datum line.

**17.
**A pipe through which water is flowing, is having
diameters 200mm and 100mm at the cross-sections 1 and 2 respectively. The
velocity of water at section 1 is given 4.0m/s. Find the velocity head at sections
1 and 2 and also rate of discharge.

**18.
**The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters
200 mm and 100 mm at sections 1 and 2 respectively. The rate of flow through
pipe is 35 litres/sec. The section 1 is 6 m above datum and section 2 is 4 m
above datum. If the pressure at section 1 is 39.24 X 10^{4} N/m^{2}
,find the intensity of pressure at section 2.

**19.
**Water is flowing through a pipe having diameter 300 mm
and 200 mm at the bottom and upper
end respectively. The intensity of pressure at the bottom end is 24.525 X 10^{4}N/m^{2}
and the pressure at the upper end is 9.81 X 10^{4} N/m^{2}.Determine
the difference in datum head if the rate of flow through pipe is 40 lit/sec.

**20.
**The water is flowing through a taper pipe of length
100 m having diameters 600 mm at the upper end and 300 mm at the lower end, at
the rate of 50 litres/sec. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 30.
Find the pressure at the lower end if the pressure at the higher level is 19.62X10^{4} N/m^{2}

**21.
**A horizontal venture meter with inlet and throat
diameters 300mm and 150mm respectively is used to measure the flow of water.
The reading of differential manometer connected to the inlet and throat is 200mm mercury.
Determine the rate of flow. Take C**d**

**= **0.98.

**22.
**An oil of specific gravity 0.8 is flowing through a
venturi meter having inlet diameter 200mm and throat diameter 100mm .The
oil-mercury differential manometer shows a reading of 250 mm. Calculate the
discharge of oil through the horizontal venturi meter. Take Cd = 0.98.

**23.
**A horizontal venturi meter with inlet diameter 200mm and
throat diameter 100mm is used to measure the flow of oil of specific gravity
0.8. The discharge of oil through venturi meter is 60 litres/sec. Find the
reading of the oil-mercury differential manometer. Take Cd =
0.98.

**24.
**A pipe through which water is flowing is having
diameters 400mm and 200mm at the cross-sections 1 and 2 respectively. The
velocity of water at section 1 is given 5.0 m/s. Find the velocity head at
section 1 and 2 and also rate of discharge.

**25.
** An oil of
specific gravity 0.9 is flowing through a venturi meter having inlet diameter
200mm and throat diameter 100mm. The oil-mercury differential manometer shows a
reading of 200mm. Calculate the discharge of oil through the horizontal venturi
meter. Take Cd =
0.98.

**26.
**The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters
200 mm and 150mm at section 1 and section 2 respectively. The rate of flow
through pipe is 40 liters/sec. The section 1 is 6m above the datum line and
section 2 is 3m above the datum. If the pressure at section 1 is 29.43X10^{4}N/m^{2}
, find the intensity of pressure at section
2.

**27.
**A horizontal venturi meter with inlet and throat
diameters 300mm and 150mm respectively is used to measure the flow of water.
The reading of differential manometer connected to inlet throat is 100mm of
mercury. Determine the rate of flow.

Take Cd = 0.98 .

**28.
**The water is flowing through a taper pipe of length
50m having diameters 400mm at the upper end and 200mm at the lower end, at the
rate of 60 liters/sec. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 40. Find the pressure at
the lower end if the pressure at the higher level is 24.525X10^{4}N/m^{2.}.

**29.
**An orifice meter with orifice diameter 100mm is
inserted in a pipe of 200mm diameter. The pressure gauges fitted upstream and
downstream of orifice meter given readings of 19.62X10^{4} N/m^{2} and 9.81X10^{4} N/m^{2} respectively. Co-efficient of discharge for the meter is given as 0.6. Find the discharge
of water through pipe.

**30.
**An orifice meter with orifice diameter 150mm is
inserted in a pipe of 300mm diameter. The pressure difference measured by
mercury oil differential manometer on the two sides of the orifice meter gives
a reading of 500mm of mercury. Find the rate of flow of oil of specific gravity
0.9 when the co-efficient of discharge of meter = 0.64.

__Remembrance__

**1. **Define loss of head in pipes
due to friction.

**2. **Identify major energy losses
and minor energy losses.

**3. **Describe hydraulic gradient
and total energy lines.

**4. **State Darcy’s and Chezy’s formula
for fluid flow through pipes.

**5. **Describe different types of
losses in fluid flow through pipes.

**6. **State the condition for
maximum transmission of power.

**7. **Describe water hammer in pipes.

__Understanding__

**8.
**Explain major energy losses and minor energy losses.

**9. **Explain hydraulic gradient
and total energy lines.

**10. **Explain Darcy’s and Chezy’s
formula for fluid flow through pipes.

**11. **Explain different types of
losses in fluid flow through pipes.

**12. **Explain with the help of a
line diagram

a) Hydraulic gradient line

b) Total energy line.

**13. **Explain the maximum
efficiency of transmission of power.

**14.
**Explain water hammer in pipes.

__Applications__

1. Write short notes water hammer.

2.
Write short notes on power transmission through pipes.

3.
Write short notes on losses of head due to friction through pipes.

4.
Find the loss of head, due to friction, in a pipe of 500 mm diameter
and 1.5 kilometres long. The velocity of water in the pipe is 1m/s. Take
co-efficient of friction as 0.005.

5.
Water is flowing through a pipe of 1500 m long with a velocity of 0.8
m/sec. What should be the diameter of the pipe, if the loss of head due to
friction is 8.7m. Take f for the pipe as 0.01.

6.
It was observed that the difference of heads between the two ends of a
pipe 250 metres long and 300 mm diameter is 1.5 metres. Taking Darcy’s
coefficient as 0.01 and neglecting minor losses, calculate the discharge
through the pipe.

7.
A pipe of 60 metres long and 150 mm in diameter is connected to a water
tank at one end and flows freely into the atmosphere at the other end. The
height of water level in the tank is 2.6 metres above the centre of the pipe.
The pipe is horizontal and f = 0.01. Determine the discharge through the pipe
in litres/sec., if all the minor losses are to be considered.

8.
A reservoir has been built 4 km away from a college campus having 5000
inhabitants. Water is to be supplied from the reservoir to the campus. It is estimated that each inhabitant will
consume 200 litres of water per day, and that half of the daily supply is
pumped within 10 hours. Calculate the size of the supply main, if the loss of
head due to friction in pipeline is 20 m. Assume f = 0.008.

9.
Find the head lost due to friction in a pipe 1 m in diameter and 1.5 km
long when the water is flowing with a velocity of 1 m/sec., by using Darcy’s equation with f = 0.020.

10.
Water is supplied to a town of
4,00,000 inhabitants. The reservoir is 6.4 kilometres away from the town and
loss of head due to friction in pipeline is measured as 1.5 m. Calculate the
size of the supply main, if each inhabitant consumes 180 litres of water per
day and half of the daily supply is pumped in 8 hours. Take the frictional
factor for pipeline is 0.030.

11.
Calculate the discharge through a pipe of diameter 200 mm when the
difference of pressure head between the two ends of a pipe 500 m apart is 4 m
of water. Take the value of f = 0.009.

12.
Determine the rate of flow of water through a pipe of diameter 200mm
and length 50 m. When one end of the pipe is connected to a tank and other end
of the pipe is open to the atmosphere. The pipe is horizontal and the height of
the water in the tank is 4 m above the centre of the pipe. Consider all minor
losses and take f = 0.009.

13.
Water is flowing through a pipe of diameter 200mm with a velocity of 3
m/sec. Find the head lost due to friction for a length of 5 m if the
coefficient of friction f = 0.021.

14.
Find the head lost due to friction in a pipe of diameter 300mm and length
50 m, through which water is flowing at a velocity of 3 m/sec. Using i) Darcy
formula for which f = 0.0026, ii) Chezy’s formula for which C = 60.

15.
Find the diameter of a pipe of length 2000 m when the rate of flow of
water through the pipe is 200 litres/sec. and the head lost due to friction is
4 m. Take the value of C = 50 in Chezy’s
formulae.

16.
A pipe of 300 m long with a diameter of 0.3 m is supplying water.
Calculate the discharge of water through the pipe, the loss of head due to
friction is 1.5 m. Take Darcy’s coefficient as
0.01.

17.
Calculate the discharge through a pipe of diameter 200mm when the
difference of pressure head between the two ends of pipe 500 m apart is 4 m of
water. Take the value of ‘f’ = 0.009.

18.
Water flows through a pipe of 200 mm in diameter 60 m long with a
velocity of 2.5 m/sec. Find the head loss due to friction by using Darcy’s
formula, assuming f = 0.005and by using Chezy’s formula, assuming C = 55.

19.
Find the difference in the elevations between the water surfaces in the
two tanks which are connected by a horizontal pipe of diameter 300mm and length
400 m. The rate of flow of water through the pipe is 300 litres/sec. Consider
all losses and take the value of f

= 0.008.

20.
In a power station, water is available
from a reservoir at a head of 75 m. If
the efficiency of transmission is 60%, find the power available when 1.25 m3 of water
flows to the station in one section.

21.
Find the maximum power that can be transmitted by a power station
through a hydraulic pipe of 3 kilometres long and 200 mm diameter. The pressure
of water at the power station is 1500 kPa. Take f = 0.01.

22.
The pressure at the inlet of a pipeline is 400 kPa and the pressure
drop is 200 kPa. The pipeline is 1.5 kilometre long. If 100 KW is to be
transmitted over this pipeline, find the diameter of the pipe and efficiency of
transmission. Take f = 0.006.

23.
A town having a population of 1,20,000 is to be supplied with water
from a reservoir at 5 km distance. It is stipulated that one half of the daily
supply of 150 litres per head should be delivered within 8 hours. What must be
the size of the pipe to furnish the supply, if the head available is 12 metres.
Take C = 45 in Chezy’s formula.

24.
A pipe 3.2 kilometres long and of 0.9 m diameter is fitted with a
nozzle of 200 mm diameter at its discharge end. Find the velocity of water
through the nozzle, if the head of water is 50 m. Take f = 0.006 for the pipe.

25.
A hydro-electric plant is supplied water at the rate of 500
litres/sec., under a head of 250 m through a pipeline 3.2 kilometres long and
500 mm diameter. The pipeline terminates in a nozzle, which has a diameter of
200 mm. find the power that can be transmitted, if the Darcy’s coefficient for
the pipe is 0.01.

26.
A pipe of 75 mm diameter and 250 m long has a nozzle of 25 mm fitted at
the discharge end. If the total head of the water is 48 m, find the maximum
power transmitted. Take f as 0.01 for the pipe.

27.
A pipe having a diameter 300 mm and length 3500 m is
used for transmission of power by
water. The total head available at pipe inlet is 500 m. Find the maximum power
available at the outlet of the pipe, if f = 0.006.

__Understanding__

**1. **Classify hydraulic turbine
with examples.

**2. **Explain with the help of a
line diagram the working principle of Impulse
turbine.

**3. **Differentiate impulse with reaction turbines.

**4. **Explain the concept of
cavitations in turbine.

**5. **Explain different Efficiency
turbine.

**6. **Explain Draft tube. Mention
its types.

**7. **Explain a)Penstock b)Anchor
block

**8. **Explain Surge tank and
mentions its function.

**9. **Indicate the factors for
selection of Hydraulic turbine.

**10. **Indicate the functions of
draft tube.

**11. **Classify the pumps.

**12. **Explain the priming in
centrifugal pump.

**13. **Classify the various
Reciprocating pumps.

**14. **Explain slip and negative
slip of the pump.

**15. **Explain with a line diagram
the working of Submersible pump.

**16. **Differentiate between the
centrifugal pump and reciprocating pumps.

**17. **Explain slip, negative slip
and Percentage Slip of Reciprocating pump.

**18.
**Explain: (i) Slip (ii) Negative slip and (iii)
Coefficient of discharge in reciprocating pump.

__Applications__

** **

1.
Explain with the help neat sketch, the working principle of Impulse turbine.

2.
Show construction and the working principle of pelton wheel.

3.
Explain the construction and the working of Francis turbine with a neat sketch.

4.
Explain the construction and working of Kaplan turbine with a neat sketch.

5. Explain
with neat sketch the following. a)Penstock b)Anchor
Block.

6. Explain Surge tank with a
neat sketch.

7.
Explain surge tank with neat sketch.

8.
Explain the multistage centrifugal pump with a neat sketch.

9. Explain
with a neat sketch, constructional details and principle ofoperation of a
centrifugal pump.

10. Explain with neat sketch the
working of multistage pump for high head.

11. Explain with neat sketch the
working of multistage pump for high discharge.

12. Explain
with a neat sketch the construction and working of Single acting Reciprocating
pump.

13. Explain
with a neat sketch the construction and working of Double acting Reciprocating
pump.

14. Explain with a neat sketch
air vessel and its functions.

15. Write about Reciprocating pump
and Mention its types.

16. Explain with a line diagram
the working of Submersible pump.

17. A Pelton
wheel develops 2000KW under a head of 100meters, and with an overall efficiency
of 85%. Find the diameter of the nozzle, if the coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.98.

18. A Pelton
wheel, having semicircular buckets and working under a head of 140meters, is running at 600rpm. The
discharge through the nozzleis500 litres/sec and diameter of the wheel is
600mm. Find: a) Power available at the
nozzle, b)
Hydraulic efficiency of the wheel, if coefficient of velocity is 0.98.

19. A Pelton wheel, working
under a head of 500 metres, produces 13000 kW at 430

r.p.m. If the
efficiency of the wheel is 85%, determine a) Discharge of the turbine.
b)Diameter of the wheel. c) Diameter of the nozzle. Assume suitable data.

20. In Hydro
electric scheme the distance between high level reservoir at the top of the
mountains and the turbine is 1.6Km and difference of their levels is 500m. The
water is brought in 4 penstocks each of diameters of 0.9 metres connected to a
nozzle of 200mm at the end. Find a) Power of each jet, and b) Total power
available at the reservoir, taking the value of Darcy’s co-efficient of
friction as 0.008.

21. The Pykara
power house in south India is equipped with impulse turbines of pelton type.
Each turbine delivers a maximum power of 14250KW, when working under a head of
900m, and running 600rpm. Find the diameter of the jet, and the mean diameter
of the wheel. Take overall efficiency of turbine as 89.2%.

22. A Pelton
wheel is required to generate 3750KW under an effective head of400m. Find the
total flow in litres/sec and size of the jet. Assume Generator efficiency 95%,
Overall efficacy 80%, co-efficient of velocity 0.97, Speed ratio 0.46. If the jet ratio is 10, find the mean
diameter of the runner.

23. The overall
efficiency of a pelton wheel is 86% when the power developed is 500KW under a head of 80m. If the
coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.97, find the diameter of the
nozzle.

24. A pelton
wheel of 1m diameter is working under a head of 150m. Find the speed of the
runner, if the coefficient of velocity and velocity ratio is 0.98 and 0.47
respectively.

25. A pelton
wheel producing 1350KW under a head of 80m at 300 rpm. Find the diameter of the
wheel, if the speed ratio is 0.45.Take CV =
0.98.

26. A Kaplan
turbine, operating under a net head of 20m, develops 20,000KW with an overall
efficiency of 86%. The speed ratio is 2.0 and flow ratio is 0.6. The hub
diameter of the wheel is 0.35 times the outside diameter of the wheel. Find the
diameter and speed of the turbine.

27. A propeller
turbine runner has an outer diameter of 4.5m and an inner diameter of 2.5m and
develops 21,000KW when running at 140rpm. under a head of 20m. The hydraulic
efficiency is 94% and overall efficiency is 88%. Find discharge through the turbine, and guide blade angle at
inlet.

28. A Kaplan
turbine working under a head of 5.5m develops 7500 KW. The speed ratio and flow
ratio are 2.1 and 0.71 respectively. If the boss diameter is 1/3 of that of the
runner and overall efficiency is 85%. Find the diameter of the runner and speed
of the turbine.

29. A
centrifugal pump delivers water at 30ltrs/sec to a height of 18m through a pipe
of 90m long and 100mm diameter. If the overall efficiency of the pump is 75%,
find the power required to drive the
pump. Take f = 0.012.

30. A
centrifugal pump delivers 60ltrs of water per sec to a tank situated at a
height 20m. If the overall efficiency of the pump is 70%. Find the power
required for the pump.

31. A
centrifugal pump having an overall efficiency of 75% is discharging 30ltrs of water per sec through a pipe of 150mm
diameter and 125m long. Calculate the power required to drive the pump, if the
water is lifted through a height of 25m. Take coefficient friction as 0.01.

32. A double
acting reciprocating pump as a stroke of 300mm and a piston of diameter 150mm.
The delivery and suction head of 26m and 4m respectively including friction
heads. If the pump is working at 60rpm, find power required to drive the pump
with 80% efficiency.

33. A single
acting reciprocating pump having a bore of 150mm diameter and Stroke of 300mm
length discharges 200ltrs of water per minute. Neglecting losses, find

a) Theoretical discharge in litre/minute. b)Coefficient of
dischargec)Slip of the pump.

34. A single acting
reciprocating pump having cylinder diameter of 150mm and stroke 300mm is used
to raise water to a total height of 30m.Find the power required to drive the pump, if the crank rotates at
60rpm.

35. A double
acting reciprocating pump of plunger diameter 100mm and stroke of 250mm length
is discharging water into a tank fitted 20m higher than the axis of the pump. If the pump is rotating at 45rpm,
find the power required to drive the pump.

__Remembrance__

**1. **State the advantages of
Hydraulics system.

**2. **State the applications of
Hydraulics system.

**3. **List the hydraulics system components.

**4. **Name the different types of
valves used in hydraulics system.

**5. **Describe a)Pressure relief
valve b)Direction control valve

**6. **Describe a)Flow control
valve b)Actuators

**7. **State the classification of
control valves.

**8. **Describe Accumulator.

__Understand__

**1.
**Give the difference between external gear pump and lobe pump.

**2.
**Differentiate between simple pressure relief valve and pilot operated
pressure relief valve.

**3.
**Explain is flow control valve.

**4.
**Explain the non-return valve.

**5.
**Classify of control valves.

__Applications__

1. Explain the hydraulic system
with neat sketch.

2.
Sketch
and explain the gear pump.

3.
Explain
the working principle of lobe pump with neat
sketch.

4.
Sketch
and explain the vane pump.

5.
Sketch
and explain the 5/2 DC valve.

6.
Sketch
and explain simple relief pressure valve.

7.
Explain
with neat sketch the pilot operated pressure relief valve.

8.
Sketch
and explain the pressure reducing valve.

9.
Sketch
and explain the non-return valve.

10. Sketch and explain the pilot
operated valve.

11. Sketch and explain the pilot
operated sequence valve.

17.
Sketch and explain the Spring loaded
Accumulator.

18. Explain
with a neat sketch single acting cylinder. 19.Explain with a neat sketch double
acting cylinder.

__Remembrance__

**1. **State the applications of pneumatics.

**2. **State and explain the
Pascal’s law.

**3. **List the components of
pneumatic system.

**4. **State the advantages of
pneumatic system.

**5. **Describe are the pneumatic actuators.

**6. **State the applications of
single-acting cylinder and double-acting cylinder.

**7. **List any five pneumatic symbols.

**8. **State the functions of FRL unit.

__Understanding__

1.
Explain the Pascal’s law.

2. Explain the pneumatic DCV
with its symbolic representation.

3. Explain the pneumatic
actuators.

4. Explain the general layout
of pneumatic system.

5. Explain air motor.

6. Explain briefly FRL unit.

__Applications__

1. Sketch and explain the
arrangement of pneumatic components.

2. Sketch and explain the vane compressor.

3. Explain the application of
2/2 DCV with its neat sketch.

4. Sketch and explain the 3/2 DCV.

5. What is 5/2 DCV. Explain
with its neat sketch.

6. Explain with neat sketch,
the single-acting cylinder.

7. Explain with neat sketch,
the double-acting cylinder.

8. Explain air motor with Sketch.

9.
Explain the piston motor with sketch.

10. Sketch and explain the gear motor.

11. Explain the working
principle of vane motor with its neat sketch.

12. Write short on air motors.

13. Sketch the following
pneumatic symbols.

a) FRL unit b)Air motor c)3/2 Pilot valve d)Single
acting actuator c)Flow control
valve.