**Diploma in
Mechanical Engineering IV Semester**

**Course
title: MECHANICS OF MACHINES BASIC THERMAL ENGINEERING**

** **APPLY BASIC CONCEPTS, LAWS AND PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS TO USE AND SELECT EQUIPMENTS/DEVICES/MACHINES WORKING ON

THESE BASICS

** **

** ****REMEMBERING **

** **

1. Define the terms: (i) system
(ii) boundary and (iii) surroundings.

2. Define the terms: i) Cycle
(iv) Enthalpy (v) Entropy.

3. State the comparison between
closed system and open system.

4. Define intensive and
extensive property.

5. Define specific heat at
constant pressure and specific heat at constant volume.

6. State the zeroth law and
first law of thermodynamics.

7. State first law and second
law of thermodynamics.

8. Define heat and work. Are
these quantities a path function or point function? Explain.

9. Define the following :

i) Quasi-static process

ii) Internal energy

10. Define steady flow process
& write steady flow energy equation with
notations.

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1. Explain open system with example.

2. Explain the closed system
with example.

3.
Differentiate between
intensive and extensive properties of a system. Give three examples for each.

4.
Derive the characteristic gas equation.

5.
Establish that Cp-Cv=R.

APPLICATION

** **

1. A closed system received a heat transfer of 120 kJ and delivers a
work transfer of 150 kJ. Determine the change of internal energy.

2. During the compression
stroke of an engine, the work done on the working substance in the engine
cylinder is 80 kJ/kg and the heat rejected to the surrounding is 40 kJ/kg.
Determine the change of internal energy.

3. A closed system undergoes a
change in process in which 5 kJ of heat energy is supplied to the system. Determine the change in internal energy
under the following conditions.

a.
i) 1 kJ of work is done on the system. ii)1.25 kJ of work is done
by the system.

4. A piston - cylinder containing air expands at a constant pressure of
150 KPa from a temperature of 285 K to a temperature of 550 K. The mass of air
is 0.05 kg. Determine the heat transfer, work transfer and change in internal
energy during the process Cp =

1.01 kJ/kg K
and Cv =
0.72 kJ/kg K.

5.
A cold storage is to be maintained at -5^{o}
while surroundings are at 35^{o}C. The leakage from the surroundings
into the cold storage is estimated to be 29
kW. The actual C.O.P. of the refrigeration plant is one - third of an ideal
plant working between the same temperatures. Determine the power required to
drive the plant.

6. In a compressor, the air has an
internal energy at beginning of the expansion is 200 kJ/kg and after expansion the internal energy becomes 510 kJ/kg.
The work done by the air during expansion is 150 kJ/kg. Determine the heat flow.

7. Determine the coefficient of
performance and heat transfer rate in a condenser of a refrigerator in kJ/hr
whose refrigeration capacity is 11000 kJ/hr if the power input is 1.5 kW.

8.
The net work output of
a cyclic process is 45 kN-m. If the heat input is 125 kJ, determine the efficiency of the cycle.

9. One litre of hydrogen at 0^{o}C
is suddenly compressed to one-half its volume. Determine the change in
temperature of the gas if the ratio of two specific heats for hydrogen is 1.4.

REMEMBERING

** **

1. List out the different
thermodynamic processes on gases.

2. State characteristics of
throttling process

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1. Explain reversible and
irreversible process.

2. Explain free expansion
process with sketch.

3. Explain throttling process

4.
Construct the PV and TS
diagram for i) Constant pressure process ii) Constant volume process iii)
Constant temperature process.

5. Derive expression for work
done in constant temperature process with PV
diagram.

6.
Derive expression for work
done in constant entropy (Isentropic) process with PV diagram.

7. Derive an expression for
work done during polytrophic process.

APPLICATION

** **

1. A quantity of gas occupies a space of 0.3m3 at a pressure of 2 bar and a
temperature of 77^{o}C which is heated at a constant volume, until the
pressure is 7 bar. Determine (i) Temperature at the end of the process (ii)
mass of the gas (iii) change in internal energy and (iv) change in enthalpy
during the process.

Assume: Cp
= 1.005 kJ/kg K, Cv = 0.714 kJ/kg K, R = 287 J/kg K.

2. A quantity of gas has a
volume of 0.14 m3,
pressure 1.5 bar and temperature 100^{o}C. If the gas is compressed at
a constant pressure, until its volume becomes 0.112 m3,
determine :

a.
i)Temperature
at the end of the compression ii)Work done in compressing the gas

b.
iii) Decrease in internal energy iv)Heat given out by the gas.

3. If the values of Cp = 0.984
kJ/kg K and Cv =
0.728 kJ/kg K for an ideal gas. Determine the characteristic gas constant and
ratio of specific heats for the gas. If one kg of this gas is heated at
constant pressure from 25^{o}C to 200^{o}C. Estimate the heat
added, ideal work done and change in internal energy. Also Determine the
pressure and final volume if the initial volume was 2 m3.

4. A volume of 0.5 m3 of gas at a
pressure of 10 bar and 200^{o}C is expanded in a cylinder to

1.2 m3 at constant
pressure. Determine the amount of work done by the gas and the increase in
internal energy. Assume Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.712 kJ/kg K.

5. A quantity of air has a
volume of 0.4 m3
at a pressure of 5 bar and a temperature of 80^{o}C. It is expanded in a cylinder at a constant
temperature to a pressure of 1 bar. Determine the amount of work done by the air.

6. 0.1 m3 of air at a pressure of 1.5
bar is expanded isothermally to 0.5 m3 Determine
the final pressure of the gas and heat supplied during the process.

7. 0.5 kg of gas is compressed
isentropically in such a manner that the ratio of final pressure to initial
pressure is 5.25. If the initial temperature is 100^{o}C Determine; (i)
work done (ii) change in internal energy. Assume: Î³= 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg K.

8. One kg of gas expands
reversibly and adiabatically. Its temperature during the process falls from
515K to 390K, while the volume is doubled. The gas does 92 kJ of work in this
process Calculate: The value Cp and Cv

9. A gas of 0.15 m3 at NTP is expanded adiabatically in a
cylinder to a volume of 0.3 m3, Determine
the pressure at the end of expansion and the work during expansion. Take Cp=1.4 KJ/Kg K

10. A certain quantity of air
has a volume of 0.028 m3 at a
pressure of 1.25 bar and 25^{o}C. It
is compressed to a volume of 0.0042 m3 according to the law PV1.3= C. Determine the final temperature and work done during
compression. Also determine the reduction in pressure at a constant
volume required to bring the air back to its original temperature.

11. A gas has a
molecular mass of 26.7. The gas is compressed through a ratio of 12 according
to the law PV1.25
= C, from initial conditions of 0.9 bar and 333 K.

Assuming
specific heat at constant volume Cv = 0.79 kJ/kg K. Determine per kg of mass, work
done and heat flow across the cylinder walls. Gas constant and ratio of
specific heat.

REMEMBERING

** **

1. Define: Air standard cycle,
Reversible cycle.

2. List the assumptions made in
thermodynamic air standard cycle.

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1.
Give the comparison between Otto, diesel and dual combustion cycles.

2.
Derive efficiency of Carnot cycle with PV diagram.

3.
Derive the efficiency of Otto cycle with PV diagram.

4.
With the help of P-V and T-S
diagrams, derive an expression for the air standard efficiency of a diesel
cycle.

5.
Derive an equation for the air standard efficiency of dual cycle.

6.
Explain with the help of P-V and T-S diagrams working of Carnot cycle .

7.
Explain with the help of P-V and T-S diagrams working of Otto cycle.

8.
Explain with the help of P-V and T-S diagrams working of Diesel cycle.

9.
Explain with the help of P-V and T-S diagrams working of Dual cycle .

APPLICATION

** **

1.
A Carnot engine working between 655 K and 320 K,
produces 150 kJ of work. Determine thermal efficiency and heat added during the process.

2.
A Carnot engine operates with a thermal efficiency of
70%. The minimum temperature of the cycle is 30^{o}C. Determine the
maximum temperature of the cycle.

3.
An engineer claims his engine to develop 3.75 kW. On testing, the
engine consumes

0.44 kg of fuel per hour having a calorific value of 42000 kJ/kg. The
maximum temperature recorded in the cycle is 1400^{o}C and minimum is
350^{o}C. Determine whether the engineer is justified in his claim.

4.
A Carnot cycle receives heat at 900^{o}C and
rejects at 50^{o}C. Determine the efficiency of the cycle. If the cycle
receives 4600 kJ of heat per minute, Determine the power developed by the
engine.

5.
A Carnot cycle works with isentropic compression ratio of 5 and isothermal
expansion ratio of 2. The volume of air at the beginning of the isothermal expansion is 0.3 m3. If the maximum temperature and pressure is limited
to 550 K and 21 bar.

Determine;
Minimum temperature in the cycle, Thermal efficiency of the cycle. Pressure at
all salient points. Take ratio of specific heats as 1.4

6.
In an Otto cycle, the
beginning and end temperatures of a isentropic compression are 316 K and 596 K
respectively. Determine the air standard efficiency and the compression ratio.
Take Î³= 1.4.

7.
A certain quantity of air at
a pressure of 1 bar and temperature 70^{o}C is compressed reversibly and
adiabatically until the pressure is 7 bar in an Otto cycle engine. 460 kJ of
heat per kg of air is now
added at constant
volume. Determine: Compression
ratio of the engine. Temperature at the end of compression. Temperature at the
end of heat addition. Take for air, CP = 1 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.707 kJ/kg K.

8.
An Otto
cycle has a cylinder diameter of 150 mm and
a stroke of 225 mm. The clearance volume is 1.25X10^{-}3 m3. Calculate
the air standard efficiency of the cycle. Take Î³= 1.4.

9.
In an air standard Otto
cycle, the compression ratio is 6.5 and the compression begins at 1 bar and 313
K. The heat added is 2520 kJ/kg. Determine: The maximum temperature and
pressure of the cycle. Work done per kg of air. Cycle efficiency. Take for air
Cv =
0.713 kJ/kg K, R = 287 J/kg K = 0.287 kJ/kg
K.

10.
In an Otto cycle, air at 1
bar and 290 K is compressed isentropically until the pressure is 15 bar. The
heat is added at constant volume until the pressure rises to 40 bar. Determine
the air standard efficiency and work done during the cycle. Take Cv = 0.717
kJ/kg K and Ru =
8.314 kJ/kg mol K.

11.
A diesel engine with a
compression ratio is 13:1 and fuel cut off ratio is at 8% of the stroke. Determine
the air standard efficiency of an engine. Take, for air Î³= 1.4.

12.
A diesel cycle operating
with the temperatures at the beginning and end of compression are 57^{o}C
and 603^{o}C respectively. The temperatures at the beginning and end of
expansion are 1950^{o}C and 870^{o}C respectively. Determine
the ideal efficiency of the cycle. Take Î³ = 1.4. If the compression ratio is 14
and the pressure at the beginning of compression is 1 bar. Determine the
maximum pressure of the cycle.

13.
An ideal diesel engine has a
diameter 150 mm and stroke 200 mm. The clearance volume is 10 percent of the
swept volume. Determine the compression ratio and the air standard efficiency
of the engine if the cut-off takes place at 6 percent of the stroke.

14.
A diesel engine has a
compression ratio of 15. Heat addition at constant pressure takes place at 10%
of the stroke. Determine the air standard efficiency of the engine. Take Î³ =
1.4 for air.

15.
The compression ratio of an
ideal air standard diesel cycle is 15. The heat transfer is 1465 kJ/kg of air.
Determine the pressure and temperature at the end of each process and determine
the cycle efficiency, if the inlet conditions are 300 K and 1 bar. Take Î³= 1.4
and Cv =
0.712 kJ/kg K, Cp
= 1 kJ/kg K for air.

16.
An engine working on dual
combustion cycle, has a compression ratio 10 and cut off takes place at of the
stroke. If the pressure at the
beginning of compression is 1 bar and
maximum pressure 40 bar, determine the air standard efficiency of the cycle.
Take Î³= 1.4.

17.
An engine working on dual
combustion cycle with cylinder diameter of 30 cm and a stroke of 42 cm. The
clearance volume is 1800 cm3 and cut off takes place at 6% of the stroke. The explosion
pressure ratio is 1.4. Determine the air standard efficiency of the engine.
Assume Î³= 1.4 for air.

REMEMBERING

** **

1. Define IC engine and give
the classification of IC engines.

2. Define the following terms
i) cylinder bore ii) swept volume iii) compression ratio.

3. Define brake power,
indicated power, mechanical efficiency.

4.
Define: Indicated thermal efficiency, Brake mean effective pressure,
Brake thermal efficiency.

5. Define : Air standard
efficiency, Volumetric efficiency, Relative
efficiency

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1. Explain with diagram
internal combustion engine indicating the component parts.

2. Explain with neat diagram
the working of two stroke petrol engine.

3. Explain with neat diagram
the working of four stroke petrol engine.

4. Explain with neat diagram
the working of two stroke Diesel engine.

5. Explain with neat diagram
the working of four stroke diesel engine.

6. Explain with diagram Rope
brake dynamometer

7. Explain the concept of heat
balance sheet.

APPLICATION

** **

1.
A heat engine has a piston diameter of 150 mm, length of stroke 400 mm
and mean effective pressure 5.5 bar.
The engine makes 120 explosions
per minute. Determine the mechanical
efficiency of the engine, if the engine BP is 5 kW.

2.
A diesel engine uses 6.5 kg of oil per hour of calorific value 30000
kJ/kg. If the BP of the engine is 22 kW and mechanical efficiency 85%.
Determine : 1) Indicated thermal efficiency, 2) Brake thermal efficiency 3)
Specific fuel consumption in kg/BP/hr.

3.
During the test on single cylinder diesel engine, working on the four
stroke cycle and fitted with a rope brake, the following readings are taken:

Effective diameter of brake wheel = 360 mm; Dead load on
brake = 200 N; Spring balance
reading = 30 N; Speed = 450 rpm; Area of indicator diagram = 420 m^{2}; Length of indicator
diagram = 60 mm; Spring scale = 1.1 bar per mm;
Diameter of cylinder = 100 mm; Stroke = 150 mm; Quality of oil used = 0.815
kg/hr; Calorific value of oil = 42000 kJ/kg.Determine brake power,
indicated power, mechanical
efficiency, brake thermal efficiency and

brake specific fuel consumption.

4.
A test is carried out on a single cylinder four stroke
petrol engine gave the following results :

Cylinder diameter = 0.3 m; piston movement = 0.52 m; clearance volume =
0.0092 m3; explosions per minute = 110, indicated mean effective pressure = 7 bar; mass of the fuel = 28 kg/hr;
calorific value of fuel = 19228 kJ/kg and take Î³ = 1.4 for air. Determine :i)
Indicated thermal efficiency ii) Air standard efficiency iii) Relative efficiency.

5.
The following observations were made during a test on
a single cylinder 4 stroke cycle diesel engine.

Speed - 150 rpm Circumference of brake drum
- 920
rpm Load on brake drum - 150
mm Spring balance reading - 25
N

Area
of indicated diagram- 950
mm2 Length of indicated diagram - 60 mm

Spring
constant - 0.035 N/mm2/mm

Cylinder
diameter - 80 mm

Length of stroke - 110
mm

C.V.
of fuel - 45430 kJ/kg Fuel
consumed - 0.85 kg/hr

6.
Determine : i) Mechanical efficiency ii) Indicated thermal
efficiency iii) BMEP

7.
A four stroke diesel engine has a cylinder bore of 150 mm and a stroke
of 250 mm. The crank shaft speed is 300 rpm and fuel consumption is 1.2 kg/hr,
having a calorific value of 39900 kJ/kg. The indicated mean effective pressure
is 5.5 bar. If the compression ratio is 15 and cut off ratio is 1.8. Determine
the relative efficiency. Assuming =
1.4 for the air.

8.
A four stroke four cylinder petrol engine gave the following details:

i. Stroke = 95 mm; Bore = 65 mm; Speed = 3000 rpm; Clearance volume

= 65 cm3; Relative efficiency on brake thermal efficiency is 45%; CV of petrol is 46300 kJ/kg. Torque developed
is 70 N-m. Determine i) Specific fuel consumption, ii) Brake power, iii) BMEP. Take = 1.4 and

= 80%.

9.
A petrol engine consumes 0.28 kg of fuel per BP-hr,
calorific value of fuel is 44000 kJ/kg, mechanical efficiency is 80% and compression ratio is 5.8. Determine (a) Brake

thermal
efficiency, (b) Indicated thermal efficiency, (c) air standard efficiency, (d)
Relative efficiency, take = 1.4 for air.

10.
An I.C. engine uses 6 kg of fuel having calorific value 44000 kJ/kg in one hour. The
I.P developed is 18 kW. The temperature of 11.5 kg of cooling water was found
to rise through 25 ^{0}C per minute. The temperature of 4.2 kg of exhaust gas with specific heat 1 kJ/kgK
was found to rise through 220 ^{0}C. Construct heat balance sheet for
the engine.

8.
A gas engine working on four stroke constant volume
cycle, gave the following results when loaded by friction brake during a test
of an hour’s duration :

Cylinder diameter 240 mm; Stroke length 480 mm;
Clearance volume 445010--6 m3; Effective circumference of the brake wheel 3.86
m; Net load on brake 1260 N at overall speed of 226.7 rpm; Average
explosions/min 77; mep of indicator card 7.5 bar; Gas used 13 m3/hr at 15 0C
and 771 mm of Hg; Lower calorific value of gas 49350 kJ/m3 at NTP; Cooling
jacket water 660 kg raised to 34.2 0C; Heat lost to exhaust gases 8%.
Determine: i) IP ii) PB, iii) Indicated thermal efficiency iv)
Efficiency ratio. Also Construct a heat balance sheet for the engine.

9.
31. A test on a single cylinder 4 stroke oil engine
having bore 18 cm and stroke 36 cm yielded the following results : Brake torque
0.44 kN-m, MEP 7.2 bar, fuel consumption

3.5 kg/min,
cooling water flow 4.5 kg/min, water temperature rise 36^{0}C, A/F
ratio 25, exhaust gas temperature 415^{0}C, Room temperature 21^{0}C,
Specific heat of exhaust gases

1.05 kJ/kgK, calorific
value 45200 kJ/kg, speed = 286 rpm. Construct up a heat balance sheet on kJ/min basis.

** CO5:
**CALCULATE HEAT TRANSFER FOR GIVEN HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1. Derive an expression for
heat transfer through a slab.

2. Derive an expression heat
transfer through a composite wall.

3. Derive an expression for the
quantity of heat flow through boiler tubes.

4. Explain with line diagram
thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of a material.

5. Explain with line diagram
radial heat transfer by conduction through thick cylinder.

APPLICATION

6. A boiler is made of iron plates 12 mm thick, if the temperature of the outside surface be 120
^{0C} and that of the inner is 100 ^{0C}, Determine (i) heat
transfer per hr and (ii) mass of water evaporated per hour. Assume that the
area of heating surface is 5 m2. Take K for iron as 84 W/mK and latent heat of
water at 100 ^{0C} is hfg = 2260 kJ/kg.

7. Heat is conducted through a
wall of room made of composite plate with a conduction of 134 W/mK and 60 W/mK and thickness 36 mm and 42
mm respectively. The temperature at
the outer face is 96 ^{0C} and 8 ^{0C}. Determine the
temperature at the interface of the two materials.

8. A furnace wall is made up of
bricks of 200 mm thick. The inner and outer surfaces of the wall have
temperature of 800 ^{0C} and 200 ^{0C}. Determine the heat
loss. If the outside temperature becomes 25 ^{0C}, after the furnace
wall is covered with insulator of 100 mm thick, Determine the reduction in heat loss.

a. Take Kbrick = 4.5 W/mK,
Kinsulator = 0.5 W/mK.

9.
Glass windows of a room have a total area of 10 m2 and
the glass is 4 mm thick. Determine the quantity of heat that escapes from the
room by conduction per second when the inside surfaces of windows are at 25 ^{0}
and the outside surfaces at 10^{0} The value of K is 0.84 W/mK.

10. The walls
of a room having the parallel layers in contact of cement, brick and wood of
thickness 20 mm, 300 mm and 10 mm respectively. Determine the quantity of heat
that passes through each m2 of wall per minute. If the temperature of air in
contact with the wall is 5 ^{0C} and 30^{0} C inside. The values of K for cement, brick and wood are 0.294,

0.252 and
0.168 W/mK respectively.

11. Determine
the rate of heat flow per square metre through the furnace wall made of 3 cm
thick iron metal and covered with an insulating material of 0.4
cm thick. Take K iron = 51 W/mK and K
insulator = 0.15 W/mK. The temperatures of the outside and inside surfaces of the wall are 400 ^{0} and 64 ^{0}C respectively.

REMEMBERING

** **

1. List the classification of
gas turbine.

2. State the applications and
limitations of gas turbine.

3. State the application of gas
turbine and fuel used in gas turbine.

4. Identify the difference
between the closed cycle gas turbine and a open cycle gas turbine.

UNDERSTANDING

** **

1. Explain closed cycle gas turbine
with schematic diagram.

2. Explain open cycle gas
turbine with schematic diagram.

3. Explain with neat diagram
closed cycle gas turbine with intercooling and
reheating

4. Explain with neat diagram
the turbo-jet engine.

5. Explain with neat diagram
the working of Ram-jet engine.

Explain the working principle of rocket engine with line diagram.